The history of mankind presents no other figure besides Muhammad Mustafa (pbuh), whose every feature of character has inspired so much interest and every intricate detail of life has been scrupulously recorded. Voluminous books could not suffice if an attempt was to be made to explicate each and every feature comprising the overall exemplary character of the Noble Prophet (pbuh).
Fundamentally and ijtihad wise, Islamic Sciences have also adopted the various qualities of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) as key proofs, the very reason for the attempts of various disciplines to appraise separately the distinct attributes of the Blessed Prophet (pbuh).
To be sure, all works compiled within the Islamic tradition the past 1400 odd years have been motivated with the ultimate aim of spelling out a book, that is to say the Quran, and a man, the Prophet of Allah (pbuh).
To truly comprehend the Prophet (pbuh), a masterwork of creation, within the restricted bounds of mortal capacity is impossible, insofar as sensory impressions and elucidations thereof are forever inflicted with inadequacy in understanding and explaining him. Just as it is a sheer impossibility to pour an ocean into a cup, so is the comprehension of the Light of Muhammad (pbuh) as befits its splendor.
What we will only try to present here, as much as our comprehension allows, will therefore be just a few drops from the grand ocean of the exemplary character of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), with the anticipation that it will provide service towards gaining an acquaintance with him.
The Prophet of Allah’s (pbuh) Beauty of Countenance and Morals
The Blessed Prophet (pbuh) is a marvel without compare, a beauty of appearance matched by a wonderfully led life. Beyond reach it would be to eloquently describe the Prophet’s (pbuh) flawless appearance and existence. As stated by Imam Qurtubi:
“The beauty of the appearance of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) did not fully transpire. Were the entirety of his beauties to be shown candidly, with all their reality, the Companions would not have had to power to gaze at him.”
Indeed, even among those constantly by the side of the Blessed Prophet (pbuh), there were not many Companions who could stare at his beautiful appearance to their hearts content, held back by their sense of adab. It has even been narrated that all the Companions would habitually lower their gaze while conversing, apart from Abu Bakr and Omar, supposedly the only two to have ever made eye contact with the Prophet (pbuh); with glowing smiles they would stare at the Noble Messenger (pbuh), who would amiably reciprocate. (Tirmdhi, Manaqib, 16/3668)
This is amply described, in his elderly years, by Amr ibn As (r.a), who made his mark in history as the Conqueror of Egypt:
“Though I spent a lot of time next to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), the shyness I was overcome with in his presence and the immense feeling of reverence deep inside always prevented me from lifting my head and staring at his sacred and beautiful face to my heart’s pleasure. If they were to ask me, right now, to describe the appearance of the Messenger of Allah, believe me, I could not.” (Muslim, Iman, 192)
Intimating dependability and trust to those around, the Prophet’s (pbuh) face was the cleanest and most handsome of all. Upon hearing of his arrival in Medina, the curious Abdullah ibn Salam, then a Jewish scholar, visited the Prophet (pbuh), and after a fleeting look at his countenance, remarked:
“Such a face can never lie”, and immediately became a Muslim there and then. (Tirmidhi, Qiyamah, 42/2485; Ahmad, V, 451)
Endowed with an immense degree of beauty, awe inspiring majesty and a dazzling elegance, he really needed neither an extra proof, nor a miracle to prove the truth of him being the Prophet of Allah.
Whenever the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) was displeasured, and likewise whenever he was pleased, one could immediately see it in his expression.
His pure body had embodied an intense vigor, a strong sense of haya and a rigorous determination. As for the depth of the sensitivity of his heart, it is impossible to articulate.
A lovely light radiated from his face; there was a graceful flow in his speech, elegance in his every move, an extraordinary power of expression, and a supreme eloquence in every word that spilled from his tongue.
Never uttering a word in vain, his every word conveyed wisdom and advice. There was not the least place for backbiting and futile talk in his vocabulary. He would talk to people in accordance with their capacities.
He was kind and humble. Although he would never express his joy through excessive laughing, his face always put a warm smile on view.
Seeing him instantaneously would overwhelm one in awe; though a brief conversation would suffice to implant feelings of deep love and affection towards him.
He would treat the righteous with respect, according to their ranks of piety. Receiving a massive share of his kindness and respect were his relatives. It was habitual for him to extend the tenderness he nurtured for his family and friends to the rest of society.
He would treat his servants inexpressibly well, to the effect of feeding them whatever he had and donning them in whatever he would wear. Generous and compassionate, the Prophet (pbuh) had struck a perfect balance between courage and kindness, compliant with the circumstance.
Ineffable is his profundity of benevolence and generosity, even far greater than one who offers without the least fear of destitution.
In the words of Jabir (r.a):
“He is never known to have said ‘No’ to anyone who wanted something from him.” (Muslim, Fadail, 56)
The most to frequent his relatives, to show the greatest affection and mercy to the public, to treat people in the most beautiful of manners, the most to desist immorality and the most exaltedly virtuous was the Gracious Prophet (pbuh).
“There is nothing heavier on a Muslim’s scale of goodness in the Hereafter than good morality. Allah, glory unto Him, despises those with ugly behavior and nasty words,” was something he would remind. (Tirmidhi, Birr, 62/2002)
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was a man of his word, a keeper of his promises. Superior to all in terms of virtue, intelligence and sharpness, his value could not possibly be overstressed.
With that said, he also carried a perpetual look of sorrow. Withdrawn to an uninterrupted state of contemplation, he only spoke when necessary. Though his spell of silence was lengthy, he would complete every sentence he begun, collecting layers of meaning in just a few words; no wonder he was the Jawami’ul-Kalim, able to convey the deepest meaning using the least possible words. His words would come out piecemeal, like beads of a rosary. With a gentle predisposition, his stature was nevertheless majestically imposing.
Never would he lose his temper, unless there was an infringement of Divine right; and given there was, his anger would not subside until the right was restored. And afterward, he would once again resign to his usual composure. Getting angry on his own behalf was not his thing; he would never develop a vendetta and become quarrelsome in a personal matter.
He would never enter the household of anyone without permission. Once he returned home, he would divide the time he would spend there into three: the first for Allah, glory unto Him, the second for his family and the third for himself, though only by name, as in effect he would spare that time for all kinds of people, common and elite, depriving not a single person of his precious time, leaving not a single heart unconquered.
At mosques, he would assume different places for seating, to prevent others from making a habit of sitting in a particular place, wary of the consecration of certain places. He disliked the adoption of conceited behavior in public. Upon entering an assembly, he would take whatever seat available, advising others do the same.
Whenever a person wanted something from him in sorting out a particular problem, irrespective of the importance of the favor, the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) would never feel at ease until that need was aptly taken care of. Given the impossibility of sorting the problem out, then the Prophet (pbuh) would not recoil from at least soothing the person with some comforting and heartening words. He was a confidant for all. No matter what their social classes were, whether rich or poor, wise or ignorant, people would receive even treatment next to him, solely from the vantage of being a human being. All his gatherings were environments teeming with kindness, wisdom, manners, patience and trust, first and foremost in Allah, glory unto Him, then in each other.
Never would there be a person explicitly condemned for his shortcomings. When the need would appear to warn a particular person, the Noble Messenger (pbuh) would do as little to subtly yet elegantly hint at it, without breaking the person’s heart. Not only was he ever preoccupied with investigating the concealed flaws of others, he was stern in prohibiting others from getting busy with such ignobility.
The Light of Being (pbuh) would not speak, unless with an aim to reap Divine pleasure. The assemblies in which he spoke were havens of rapture. The enthusiasm and wholeheartedness that would take over those listening around him when he spoke, was later to be described by the Companions as follows:
“We would sit so quietly and still, as if a bird had perched on our heads and we were afraid that we might scare it to flight.” (Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 23-24/4753)
The manners and conduct that had reflected onto his Companions were of such intensity that, more often than not, even asking him questions would be deemed impudent. Thus they would wait for a Bedouin to perhaps arrive from the desert and inadvertently drop in to ask the Prophet (pbuh) questions and spark a conversation, from whose blessings and grace they would be in hope of benefiting.
Throughout his life the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) was a monument of sincerity. He never said anything which was not already in his heart and never advised anyone to do something he did not. With such inspiring morals, he was the Quran come-to-life.
The Humbleness of the Prophet of Allah (pbuh)
Despite achieving, in a very short time, what other kings could have only dreamt of and conquering peoples’ hearts as an ideal edifier, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) continued leading his hitherto humble life, taking not the slightest notice of the worldly riches that lay before his feet. Like before, he carried on living modestly in his unassuming mud room, sleeping on a mattress stuffed with date leaves. He wore simple clothes. His standard of living was below par even of the poorest of people. At times, though he found nothing to eat, he still remained thankful to Allah, glory unto Him, wrapping a stone around his stomach to ease his hunger. Even though all his sins, committed or impending, had been forgiven, he persevered in his supplication and gratitude to the Almighty, persisting in his lengthy salats until daybreak, to the point where his soles would swell. He ran to the aid of the needy. The solace for the orphans and the lonely, by no means did he allow his greatness to get in the way of supporting the underprivileged, taking each and every one of them under his benevolent, caring wings of mercy.
On the day of the Conquest of Mecca, when in the sight of men he appeared the strongest, to a Meccan, trembling in fear and anxiety in the presence of the Prophet (pbuh) pleading him to:
“Please…Teach me Islam”, the Gracious Prophet (pbuh) taught him first calmness, with the gentle words reminiscent of the severe bygone years:
“Calm down my brother, for I am not a king,” and continued in reference to his honorable late mother, “…but the orphan of your old neighbor of Quraysh who used to eat sun dried meat”; thereby presenting, what is beyond the shadow of a doubt, the apex of humbleness unprecedented in the entire history of mankind.
Again, on the same day, to Abu Bakr (r.a), the Yar-i Ghar, who had carried his aged father on his back to presence of the Prophet (pbuh), requesting him to teach him the words of faith, he benevolently said:
“Why did you exhaust your elderly father all the way here? Could not have we visited him instead?”
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) always confessed vulnerability, describing himself, in the words of the Quran:
“I am only a mortal like you; only that I receive Revelation…” (al-Kahf, 110)
Accentuating the clause abduhu, i.e being a servant of Allah, in the testimony of faith, he was thus wary, lest his ummah fell in the pits of deviancy like others before.
To those who showed excess admiration of him, he would be quick to remind:
“Do not elevate me above my deserved rank, for Allah made me a servant long before He made me a Messenger.” (Hayhtami, IX, 21)
The Blessed Prophet (pbuh) had a food bowl, called gharra, carried by four persons. After having prayed the duha salat in the morning, they brought the gharra full of stew, around which the Companions then gathered. After there had gathered a many people, the Prophet (pbuh) also kneeled down and occupied a little place to give space to others. A Bedouin onlooker, somewhat disillusioned by the behavior he deemed too modest, remarked:
“What kind of a sitting style could that be?”
“Allah, glory unto Him, created me a dignified and humble servant,” replied the Light of Being (pbuh), “not a stubborn tyrant!” (Abu Dawud, 17/3773)
Thus he declared, in no uncertain terms, that he could never behave with conceit and arrogance.
Again, on an occasion, he professed:
“No single person can enter Paradise solely through his deeds,” to the utter astonishment of the Companions who asked:
“Not even you?”
“Yes,” the Prophet (pbuh) replied. “Not even me, had it not been for the grace of my Lord. Not even I can enter Paradise unless I am enfolded by His grace, compassion and mercy…otherwise my deeds can not save me!” (Bukhari, Riqaq, 18; Muslim, Munafiqun, 71-72; Ibn Majah, Zuhd, 20; Darimi, Riqaq, 24)
By pointing to the garb of disgrace awaiting in the Hereafter those who dress out of conceit, arrogance and vanity, the Noble Prophet (pbuh) again warns his people against the flames of Hellfire. Some of the hadith in relation include:
“On the Day of Judgment, Allah will not deign to look in the face those who drag their clothes on the ground out of conceit.” (Bukhari, Libas, 1, 5)
“Whoever wears the dress of fame on Earth, Allah shall make them wear the attire of disgrace in the Hereafter.” (Ibn Majah, Libas, 24)
Without giving it a second thought, the Prophet (pbuh) would even donate spoils that fell to his personal lot, preserving a lifestyle of humbleness akin to the materially underprivileged lower class of his ummah.
The Generosity of the Prophet of Allah (pbuh)
The Prophet (pbuh) always referred to himself as a mediator of charity, with a constant emphasis that it is Allah, glory unto Him, who is the Real Giver and Owner of all.
Still not a Muslim, Safwan ibn Umayya, one of the notables of Quraysh, accompanied the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in the campaigns of Hunayn and Taif. Observing the noticeable wonder with which Safwan was gazing at a particular batch of the war spoils gathered at Jiranah, the Noble Messenger (pbuh) asked him:
“Do you really like them?”
And when Safwan replied in the positive, the Prophet (pbuh) said:
“Take them…It’s all yours!”
Thereupon, unable to hold back his excitement, Safwan exclaimed:
“No heart other than a Prophet’s can be that generous”, before following it up with the Word of Faith and becoming a Muslim.
Once he returned to his tribe, he was quick to declare:
“Run, my people, to accept Islam…for Muhammad donates abundantly without the tiniest fear of poverty and need!” (Muslim, Fadail, 57-58; Ahmad, III, 107)
Once, another person came by and asked something from the Prophet (pbuh) who had nothing to give at the time. But the Prophet (pbuh), nonetheless, told the man to find a loan, assuring him that he would pay it off on his behalf. (Haythami, X, 242)
In the spirit of his ancestor Ibrahim (a.s), the Prophet of Grace (pbuh) would never have a meal alone, without guests. He would either sponsor the debts of the deceased, or find suitable sponsors, refusing to perform their funeral salat before their dues were paid off.
“A generous person is closer to Allah, to Paradise and to people, and distant to the flames of Hell. But a miser is distant to Allah, to Paradise and to people and close to Hellfire,” he has stated. (Tirmidhi, Birr, 40/1961)
In another hadith he states:
“Two traits never come together in a true Muslim: Miserliness and bad morals…” (Tirmidhi, Birr, 41/1962)
The Piety of the Prophet of Allah (pbuh)
He was indisputably the most pious among all people. Common for him was his prayer to the Almighty to be granted with piety, that is, with taqwa:
“Allah…Grant my self piety and refine it…for You are the One to refine it; its Helper and Lord.” (Muslim, Dhikr, 73)
“Allah…I plea to You to give me guidance, piety, chastity and richness of heart.” (Muslim, Dhikr, 72)
Piety compelled him to live a poor life. Mother Aisha reports that there was never a time that the Prophet (pbuh) got to enjoy as little as a barley bread on two consecutive days, and on another account, a wheat bread on three consecutive days. (Bukhari, Ayman, 22; Muslim, Zuhd, 20-22; Ibn Majah, At’imah, 48)
In encouraging his ummah to take up a life of piety, he is known to have said:
“Closest to me among people are the pious who, wherever they are, uphold their piety for Allah.” (Ahmad, V, 235; Haythami, IX, 22)
“My friends, without a doubt, are the pious.” (Abu Dawud, Fitan, 1/4242)
“Wherever you are fear Allah with piety and immediately follow up a bad deed with a good to efface it. Treat people with the best of morals…” (Tirmidhi, Birr, 55/1987)
As for the way to attain true taqwa:
“…the rank of true taqwa remains out of reach, so long as one does not abandon certain permissible things from fear of straying toward the impermissible.” (Tirmidhi, Qiyamah, 19/2451; Ibn Majah, Zuhd, 24)
Supremacy, for him, was not something exercised by whites against blacks, nor nations against one another; it much rather came through piety. (Ahmad, V, 158)
A splendid enunciation of piety comes from Isa (a.s), in his answer to a person who once asked him:
“Tell me, the teacher of goodness and virtue, how one becomes pious in the sight of the Lord.”
“It is easy”, responded Isa (a.s). “You first become attached to the Lord with a deep love, then perform good deeds to the best of your ability and feel mercy for the entire Children of Adam just as you feel mercy for yourself.”
He then added:
“…and do not do to others what you would not wish upon yourself. Only then will you become pious in the sight of Lord.”
Omar (r.a) once asked Ubayy ibn Qab (r.a) the meaning of taqwa.
“Have you ever treaded a thorny path?” asked Ubayy (r.a).
“So what did you do?”
“I lifted my clothes and focused on my every step not to be spiked by the thorns,” replied Omar (r.a).
“Such is taqwa,” Ubayy (r.a) thereupon stated.
Spiritually closest to the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) are the pious. The below account is provided by Muadh ibn Jabal (r.a):
“Sending me off to Yemen as governor, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) accompanied me to the outskirts of Medina to farewell me. I was astride, and he walking by my side. After giving me some advice, he said:
‘Who knows, Muadh, you might not be able to see me again after this year. Bu perhaps you will visit my Masjid over there and my grave…’
Hearing those words, coupled with the grief of separating from the friend, reduced me to tears.
‘Do not cry’, consoled the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). Then turning his gaze toward Medina, he said:
‘Closest to me among people are the pious who, wherever they are, uphold their piety for Allah.’”
The Prophet of Allah’s (pbuh) Life of Abstinence
Time came when all the neighboring lands willingly pledged allegiance to the Blessed Prophet (pbuh), rendering him the master of all Arabia. In spite of the lavishness he could have certainly indulged in, he instead chose to continue his simple life. He confessed he exercised no power over anything and that everything was in the hand of might of Allah, glory unto Him. Time came when riches began flowing his way. Caravans loaded with lavish treasures poured wealth into the streets of Medina. Donating them all to the needy, he held fast to his illustrious life of abstinence, that is of zuhd, saying:
“If I had gold as great as Mount Uhud, apart for my debts, I would not store it more than three days.” (Bukhari, Tamanni, 2; Muslim, Zakat, 31)
Days would go by without there being a fire lit, in the house of the Prophet (pbuh) for cooking; and more often than not, he would sleep on an empty stomach. (Ahmad, VI, 217; Ibn Sad, I, 405)
Omar (r.a) had once arrived at the Prophet’s house. He took a look around the room; it was bare except for a straw mattress woven with date leaves, against which the Prophet (pbuh) was laying. The dry straw mattress had left its imprints on his blessed skin. In a corner there also stood a cupful of barley flour, hanging beside which, by a nail, was an old water bottle made out of leather. And that was it! That was the entire wealth of a man, to whose will the entire Arabian Peninsula had surrendered. Omar (r.a) let out a deep sigh, and was suddenly overwhelmed with tears by the touching sight.
“Why are you crying?” asked the Noble Prophet (pbuh).
“Why would I not?” replied Omar (r.a). “The Caesars and Khousraus swim in worldly pleasures while the Prophet of Allah sleeps on a parched mattress…”
The Prophet (pbuh) then consoled the aching heart of his dear friend:
“Do not cry, Omar…Wouldn’t you want them to have the world with all its pleasures and us the Hereafter?”
Again, in reaction to a similar incident, he once said:
“What is it to me of the world? My state in the world is like that of a wayfarer who on a hot summer day momentarily shades under a tree then continues along his journey.”
Repetitiously, with the stirring anxiety of being called into account for worldly gains in the Hereafter, the Prophet (pbuh) would pray:
“Allah…Make me live a poor man, die a poor man and resurrect me with the poor!” (Tirmidhi, Zuhd, 37/2352; Ibn Majah, Zuhd, 7)
Though under the amnesty of being guaranteed with Paradise, prophets will also be called into account for their received blessings in the world and whether or not they communicated the Divine Message, a circumstance verified by the Quran:
“Most certainly then We will question those to whom (the messengers) were sent, and most certainly We will also question the messengers.” (Araf, 6)
Expressions like zuhd, taqwa and ihsan are different words that in effect convey the same meaning. The common aim pervading these concepts that comprise also the gist of Sufi training, is to guide the heart to peace and tranquility by virtue of shackling the insidious desires of the self and developing the inner capacity for the spiritual, which in turn is the articulation of qalb’us-salim, a heart of purity, imperative to become a true servant of the Real.
The Courtesy of the Prophet of Allah (pbuh)
To understand the maturity the refined heart of the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) had attained, it would suffice for one to recall the time when, seeing a man spit on the ground, his gracious face turned red and was reduced to stillness. Only after some Companions rushed to cover the spit with some sand was he able to move on.
Constantly commanding others to take care of the way they dressed and disliking an unkempt approach in clothing, the Prophet (pbuh) would at the same time not condone unkempt hair and beards. Once, while in the Masjid, a man had arrived with messy hair and beard. The Prophet (pbuh) signaled at him to fix his look; and after he did as he had been told, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) declared:
“Now doesn’t that look better than going around like Satan with unkempt hair?” (Muwatta’, Shaar, 7)
On another occasion, the Prophet again saw another man with a muddled appearance. Astonished, he said:
“Why doesn’t he wash his hair and look after it?”
Seeing another with dirty clothes, yet at another time, he pronounced the need for Muslims to be clean and tidy, with the words:
“Can not that man find any water to clean his clothes?” (Abu Dawud, Libas, 14/4062; Nasai, Zinat, 60)
At another time, to a man who had arrived at his presence in an untidy manner, the Noble Prophet (pbuh) asked how his financial status was. And when the man confessed to being well-to-do, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) cautioned him:
“…then allow Allah to see the trace of His blessings on you!” (Abu Dawud, Libas, 14/4063; Nasai, Zinat, 54; Ahmad, IV, 137)
Another similar hadith states:
“Allah likes to see the trace of the blessings on the servant whom He gives.” (Tirmidhi, Adab, 54/2819; Ahmad, II, 311)
The exemplary character of the Prophet (pbuh) marks the pinnacle of mercy, courtesy and an elegance of heart. Even to a crude Beduoin shouting vulgarly and repetitiously from behind him:
“Muhammad, over here,” he still knew how to say,
“Yes, what can I do for you?” and thus respond to a shameless rudeness with supreme courtesy.
Inspired by an extreme sense of courtesy, the Prophet of Grace (pbuh) would always serve his guests with his own hands. (Bayhaki, Shuab, VI, 518, VII, 436)
Even during his childhood, he was never known to transgress the bounds of courtesy and quarrel with anyone.
Together with exuding an enormous depth of courtesy in his own person, the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) had also reared his family in a way compliant with the same supreme morals.
Providing a beautiful testimony indeed is the experience below of Hasan (r.a), the Noble Prophet’s grandson:
Once having circumambulated the Kabah and performed two rakahs of salat by the Site of Ibrahim, Hasan (r.a) lifted his hands aloft and touchingly prayed:
“Allah…a small and weak servant has come by to Your door. O Allah…a helpless slave begs by Your sill. Allah…a beggar has come, Your vulnerable slave…”
Hasan (r.a) then left following the poignant supplication and on the way stumbled across a few poor people trying to placate their hunger with a loaf of bread. To raise their spirits he greeted the crowd and went next to them. Cheered by his considerate approach, they in turn invited Hasan (r.a) to join in their humble feast.
So the Grandson of the Prophet modestly sat with them and said:
“Had I have known this bread was not charity I would not have hesitated to eat with you.” Then, to again comfort the poor folk, Hasan (r.a) stood and courteously said:
“Come on, let’s go to our place!”
There he fed them and donned them in new clothes, moreover putting some money in their pockets before cheerfully seeing them off. By the time the encounter was over, he had won over all their hearts. (See: Abshihi, al-Mustatraf, Beirut 1986, I, 31)
What a magnificent indication such courtesy and elegance at the same time provides for the manner in which the Creator gazes at humankind through with the Gaze of Mercy and Benevolence.
Still, there is more to the kindness of Hasan (r.a).
Strolling through the vineyards of Medina once, Hasan (r.a) saw a black slave helping himself to some of the bread he was holding in his hand, while feeding some of it to a dog waiting before him.
Instantly spellbound by the manifestation of the Divine Name Rahman, the Merciful, in kindhearted deed of the slave, Hasan (r.a) asked him the reason as to why he would do such a thing, though the slave was to shy to look at Hasan (r.a) in the face.
“Who are you, lad?” asked thereupon Hasan (r.a).
“I am a servant of Aban, son of Othman (r.a),” the slave replied.
“Then to whom does this vineyard belong?”
With the wish of becoming closer to the seemingly ordinary slave who discernibly was a beloved of Allah and a sultan of the realm of the spiritual, Hasan (r.a) said:
“Do not leave…I will return in a moment!”
He then hurriedly went next to Aban, the owner of the vineyard, and purchased both the vineyard and the slave of him. He then arrived by the side of the slave once more:
“Lad…I have purchased you.”
“Very well,” said the lad respectfully. “Then it is my duty to obey Allah and His Messenger, and you…”
Becoming emotional all the more upon hearing these words, Hasan (r.a) had grown even greater in his admiration for the young lad, owing to his sincere loyalty. To reciprocate the beauty of heart possessed by the slave that had sent him into the depths of a profound stir of emotion, Hasan (r.a) pronounced:
“For Allah’s sake, from now on you are free…and the vineyard is yours as present!” (Ibn Manzur, Muhtasaru Tarihi Dimashq, VII, 25)
The Manners and Haya of the Prophet of Allah (pbuh)
The Noble Prophet (pbuh) never spoke at the top of his voice. In public, he would walk composedly, always with a smile on his face. Given someone uttered a coarse, offensive word next to him, the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) would never put him down in public; besides, since his facial expressions persistently reflected his inner state, people would be tentative in what they did or spoke next to him. Owing to his haya, he is never known to have laughed loudly, always content instead with a warm smile. On the words of the Companions, he was shier than a maiden enshrouded in her veil.
He has expressed in a hadith:
“Haya is from iman (faith in Allah), and whosoever has it is in Paradise. Lack of it is from a hardness of the heart; and a heart of stone is in Hellfire.” (Bukhari, Iman, 16)
“Hayaand iman go hand in hand…when one leaves, the other follows!” (Tabarani, Awsat, VIII, 174; Bayhaqi, Shuab, VI, 140)
“Vulgar words incur nothing but shame, while haya and manners adorn wherever they enter.” (Muslim, Birr, 78; Abu Dawud, Jihad, 1)
True haya is acquired through a remembrance of death, a means to purge the heart of the love of the world. The Prophet of Grace (pbuh) continuously advised his Companions to develop a sense of haya for the Almighty as appropriate to His Majesty. At one time, when they appreciatively expressed that they had haya for their Lord, the Prophet (pbuh) explained real haya as protecting all parts of the body from the impermissible and never taking the thought of death out of the mind. The desire of the Hereafter, he then continued, necessitated the abandonment of the love of the world and that such were the only people filled with a proper sense of haya for their Lord. (Tirmidhi, Qiyamah, 24/2458)
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) would never stare inquisitively at anyone in the face. His gaze spent greater time fixed on the ground than it did at the skies. Stemming from a supreme character endowed with such haya, never would he use people’s mistakes against them.
As conveyed by Aisha (r.ha), whenever the Prophet (pbuh) was delivered with a word he was not fond of, he would not react by saying:
“Why is so and so saying these things?” but instead by remarking “why are some people saying these things?” (Abu Dawud, Adab, 5/4788)
And sometimes, to impart a feeling of dislike for certain inappropriate behavior, he would caution them in the most sophisticated manner, saying:
“Why am I seeing such and such things committed?”, as if to figuratively turn the blame on himself.
Virtually quivering not to break anyone’s heart even when counseling them, the Prophet of Excellence (pbuh) was thus a lofty tower of compassion.
Having imbibed such Prophetic morals, Mawlana Rumi, that illustrious friend of the Truth, swathes abstract realities in concrete words when he says:
“‘What is Iman?’ asked my reason to my heart. Whispering into the ear of my reason, my heart replied, ‘Iman is but manners (adab).”
The Courage of the Prophet of Allah (pbuh)
Nowhere seen to give in to fear and anxiety throughout his life, it is inconceivable to even try to imagine a hero greater than the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). Patient and persevering in times of extraordinary dread, he would never act inappropriately, like most tend to do when under the spell of fright.
Reciting but the two ayah from Chapter Yasin below, he had bravely and indifferently walked through the ranks of those waiting to slay him:
اِنَّا جَعَلْنَا ف۪يۤ اَعْنَاقِهِمْ اَغْلَالًا فَهِىَ اِلَى الْاَذْقَانِ فَهُمْ مُقْمَحُونَ وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْ بَيْنِ اَيْد۪يهِمْ سَدًّا وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ سَدًّا فَاَغْشَيْنَاهُمْ فَهُمْ لَا يُبْصِرُونَ
“We have put yokes round their necks right up to their chins, so that their heads are forced up (and they cannot see). And We have put a bar in front of them and a bar behind them, and further, We have covered them up; so that they cannot see.” (Yasin, 8-9)
Ali (r.a) recounts:
“When the Battle of Badr was continuing with all its vigor, we were taking refuge behind the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). He was by far our bravest…he would always be positioned closest to the enemy ranks.” (Ahmad, I, 86)
A similar report is given by Bara (r.a). with regard to the Blessed Prophet’s (pbuh) courage:
“By Allah, whenever the battle got fierce, we would seek the shelter of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). We would regard the next most courageous as he, courageous enough to stand in the same line as him.” (Muslim, Jihad, 79)
For i’la-i kalimatullah, that is to raise the word of Allah and render His religion the highest, he would always be in the frontline of battle. During the Battle of Hunayn, despite the initial disarray of the Muslim army, he proved he had lost none of his resolve as he lunged into the center of the enemy lines, charging his mule further into their core, raising thereby the courage of his Companions, until with Divine assistance, they were able to turn the tide and claim victory. (Muslim, Jihad, 76-81)
He would say:
“By Allah under whose Power and Will I abide, I would dearly love to fight for the sake of Allah and be martyred; then be revived to fight once more and be martyred again, and again…” (Muslim, Imarah, 103)
The Gentleness of the Prophet of Allah (pbuh)
The Blessed Prophet (pbuh) was the gentlest among his peers (Muslim, Hajj, 137), which brings to mind the testimony of Aisha :
“There was nobody with more beautiful morals than the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). Whenever someone from his family or among his friends called him, he always responded in the politest way. It was owing to his sublime morals that Allah, glory unto Him, revealed the verse:
‘And you stand on an exalted standard of character.’ (al-Qalam, 4)” (Wahidi, p.463)
Throughout his life the Noble Messenger (pbuh) never sought personal revenge, habitually opting to forgive instead.
Aisha , again, elaborates the gentleness of the morals of the Prophet (pbuh) along the following lines:
“He never humiliated anyone…neither did he respond to evil except with forgiveness and lenience. He always stood remote from evil. Never has he taken personal revenge from anyone. There is neither a slave nor a servant, even an animal he has handled unjustly.”
The words below, reminiscent of the Blessed Prophet, belong to Anas (r.a):
“I have never touched a satin or silk softer than the hands of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). Neither have I smelt a fragrance sweeter than his. I served him for exactly ten years. He was never frustrated with me; not even once did he say ‘phew’. Not only did he ever ask ‘why did you do this’ for something I did, he did not ever remark ‘should not have you done this’ for something that I did not.” (Bukhari, Sawm 53, Manaqib 23; Muslim, Fadail 82)
The Prophet (pbuh) once praised a companion, commenting:
“You have two traits Allah is fond of: Gentleness (hilm) and discretion (taannii).” (Muslim, Iman, 25, 26)
A Bedouin, at one time, had urinated in the Mosque of Medina. The Companions immediately began rebuking him, until the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) intervened:
“It’s best you leave the man alone. Just pour a bucket of water over where he has urinated…for you have been sent to make things easy, not to cause difficulty.”
He then benignly explained to the Bedouin the importance of mosques and the manners to have therein.
Anas (r.a) says:
“I was walking with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). He was wearing a mantle made of Najran fabric, with thick and rigid edges. A Bedouin then caught up with the Prophet of Allah (pbuh) and tugged the mantle from behind so forcefully that the edge of the mantle, as I saw it, became par with his neck. The Bedouin then shouted:
‘Muhammad! Order them to give me some of what you have with you of the goods that belong to Allah!’
The Messenger of Allah simply turned around and smiled at the man, before ensuring he received some goods.” (Bukhari, Khumus 19, Libas 18, Adab 68; Muslim, Zakat 128)
His remarkable success in the Call was in fact through the blessings of such magnificent conduct, a maturity of the Prophet (pbuh) described by the Almighty as:
فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِنَ اللّٰهِ لِنْتَ لَهُمْ وَلَوْ كُنْتَ فَظًّا غَل۪يظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانْفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ
“Thus it is due to mercy from Allah that you deal with them gently, and had you been rough, hard hearted, they would certainly have dispersed from around you…” (Ali Imran, 159)
Without a shadow of a doubt, the people of the Age of Ignorance had melted like a candle to the flame that was the gentle, virtuous and lenient character of the Noble Messenger (pbuh); and saved from the uncompromising wilderness in which they were trapped, they became moths spinning around that Light, compassionately aching for the good of humanity.
The Mercy and Compassion of the Prophet of Allah (pbuh)
The Prophet of Mercy (pbuh) states in a hadith:
“Allah, glory unto Him, the Rahman, has mercy for those who are merciful. Show mercy and compassion for those on Earth so that you will be shown mercy and compassion by those in the Heavens.” (Tirmidhi, Birr, 16/1924)
The profound mercy the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was imbued with becomes conspicuous, among other selfless deeds, in his giving permission to a mother to shorten her salat given she has her toddler incessantly crying by her side, and no less in his many nights of praying, with teary eyes, for the wellbeing of his ummah and his sacrifice of his entire time for the salvation of mankind from Hellfire.
Since he was sent as a mercy for the entire realm of being, the compassion of the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) had encompassed every single creature. Asked, on one occasion, to curse the disbelievers, he instead replied:
“I have not been sent to Earth to curse…for I am a Prophet of Mercy.” (Muslim, Fadail, 126; Tirmidhi, Daawat, 118)
When he went to the town of Taif to convey the call of Islam, he was stoned by its ignorant and selfish community. The Angel of the Mountains, accompanied by Jibril, then came to the Blessed Prophet (pbuh), avowing to:
“…strike these two mountains together and lay waste to their existence,” if he wished. But the Prophet (pbuh) did not.
“No”, he said. “I only wish that the Almighty will send forth from their progeny a generation who will worship none other than Allah and will ascribe none as partners to Him.” (Bukhari, Bad’ul-Khalq, 7; Muslim, Jihad, 111)
For the dwellers of Taif, the Thaqif, who had expelled him from their town amid unspeakable insults and who had held out until the ninth year of Hegira at the expense of many Muslim casualties, the Noble Prophet (pbuh) prayed persistently:
“O Allah…Grant guidance to the tribe of Thaqif…Send them to us of their own accord”, until in the end, they arrived at Medina to enter the folds of Islam, by their own will. (Ibn Hisham, IV, 134; Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 73/3942)
Abu Usayd (r.a)once came to the Prophet (pbuh) with some prisoners of war he had taken captive at Bahrain. The Blessed Prophet (pbuh) saw a female captive crying and so he asked for the reason why she was.
“That man sold my son”, she complained.
“Did you?” the Prophet of Grace (pbuh) inquired, turning his gaze to Abu Usayd (r.a).
“Yes”, responded Abu Usayd (r.a).
“…To the Abs Clan.”
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) thereupon commanded the Companion to:
“Mount your horse, go and return with the lady’s son!”
As exemplified by the following account, the Prophet’s (pbuh) benevolence was of a universal character. He once stated, with the Companions by his side:
“By Allah, under whose Power I abide, you will not enter Paradise until you are compassionate.”
“But, Messenger of Allah, we are all compassionate”, the Companions commented.
“Compassion is not simply that you nurture for one another. Rather it is something that extends to entire creation; yes…to creation in its entirety.” (Hakim, IV, 185/7310)
The Lenience of the Prophet of Allah (pbuh)
Allah, glory unto Him, loves to forgive. Allah pledges to accept the repentance of a servant, who repents with a sincere feeling of remorse for the wrongdoings committed; and being a Bountiful Forgiver, He also encourages His servants to adopt the same approach towards others.
The condition of being forgiven is remorse, as well as abiding by the Commands of the Creator and steering clear of the impermissible thereafter. The most splendid instances of forgiving others are to be found in the life of the Prophet of Mercy (pbuh). One recalls, first and foremost, how, on the day of the Conquest of Mecca, for the sake of the splendor of tawhid, he forgave Hind, the woman who had fiercely ripped her teeth into the severed lungs of Hamza during the grim Battle of Uhud.
Habbar ibn Aswad was among the most vicious enemies of Islam. Spitefully poking, with his spear, the camel on which Zaynab (r.a) was astride right before her migration to Medina, she had caused the daughter of the Noble Prophet (pbuh) to fall of, consequently leaving her bloody and bruised, and above all, with a miscarriage of the baby she was pregnant with at the time. Most regrettable was the fact that the wound would eventually end up as the cause of her death a short time later. Habbar was the culprit of many malevolent crimes alike. He had fled on the Day of the Conquest of Mecca, eluding all attempts of being captured. A while later he tentatively appeared in Medina at the presence of the Prophet of Grace (pbuh), while he was sitting with the Companions. All he did was to announce he had become Muslim. Not only did the Prophet (pbuh) forgive him, he moreover prohibited all others from even abusing Habbar and throwing him insults. (Waqidi, II, 857-858)
Another distinguished foe of Islam was Iqrimah, the son of the notorious Abu Jahl. He had taken flight to Yemen following the triumphant arrival of the Believers in Mecca. After a great toil, Iqrimah was persuaded by his wife to seek the amnesty of the Noble Messenger (pbuh), in whose presence he appeared a short time later, but this time as a Muslim.
“Welcome, you wandering cavalier,” the Gracious Prophet (pbuh) greeted Iqrimah gleefully; and concealing his bygone malicious deeds against the Muslims, he pardoned him. (Tirmidhi, Isti’zan, 34/2735)
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) would incessantly pray:
“Allah…Forgive my ummah, for they do not know.” (Ibn Majah, Manasiq, 56; Ahmad, IV, 14)
Immediately after accepting Islam, Sumamah ibn Usal, the leader of Yamamah, severed all commercial ties with Mecca, which hitherto depended on Yamamah for nearly all her provisions. Finding themselves all of a sudden in the throes of scarcity, the shocked Meccans implored the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) to intervene. Writing a letter to Sumamah, the Prophet of Mercy (pbuh) counseled him to continue trade with Meccans.
Yet it was these very idolaters of Mecca who had put up a stern three year boycott against the Muslims, inflicting the Believers with incredible torment. But the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) still had room to forgive even that.
What’s more, during the seventh year of Hegira in the wake of the Capture of Khaybar, the Noble Prophet (pbuh) aided the depleted Meccans, who were battling fierce famine and scarcity, with supplies of gold, barley and date seeds. Accepting the aid, Abu Sufyan distributed it among the Meccan needy, as he remarked with gratitude:
“May Allah award our Cousin for looking out for his relatives…” (Yaqubi, II, 56)
Their hearts growing tender through such acts of magnanimity, the Meccans soon found themselves wholeheartedly and unreservedly accepting Islam.
The Blessed Messenger (pbuh) even forgave a cavalry captured at Hudaybiya, who had confessed their intentions to assassinate him. (Muslim, Jihad, 132, 133)
A woman, following the Conquest of Khaybar, had contaminated the Noble Prophet’s (pbuh) food with poison. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) realized the food had been poisoned just as he was taking a piece of the meat toward his mouth. Despite the woman admitting to being the one with the vicious plan, the Noble Prophet (pbuh) still forgave her regardless. (Bukhari, Tibb, 55; Muslim, Salam, 43)
Through Revelation, the Prophet (pbuh) had found out about Labid, the Jew who had put an agonizing spell on him, and those who had encouraged Labid to resort to the sinister act. But the Noble Messenger (pbuh) never even once mentioned Labid’s misdemeanor and never held the crime against him. He never sought revenge by killing Labid and his fellow Jews of Banu Zurayq.
The Quran had after all advised:
“Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; But turn away from the ignorant.” (al-Araf, 199)
The wise, who through love have striven to pave a path of nearness with the Light of Being (pbuh), and who have therefore been able to receive a share of his forgiving nature, have likewise always been forgiving, with the ambition of incurring Divine Mercy. One only needs to recall the words of Hallaj Mansur while being stoned:
“My Lord…Forgive the stoners before You forgive me…”
The Prophet of Allah’s (pbuh) Observance of Neighbor’s Rights
The Prophet of Mercy (pbuh) demanded utmost sensitivity towards observing the rights of neighbors.
“So many times did Jibril repeat his advice to treat the neighbor with goodness,” said the Prophet (pbuh) “that I nearly thought neighbors would become the inheritors of one another.” (Bukhari, Adab, 28; Muslim, Birr, 140-141)
And in another Hadith he states:
“A neighbor, who is a nonbeliever, has one right. A Muslim neighbor has two. A Muslim, who moreover is a relative, has three.”
Staring through a neighbor’s window, causing discomfort through the smell of food and engaging in conduct to their displeasure are among violations of the rights of neighbors.
Thus would say the Light of Being (pbuh):
“The best neighbor in the sight of Allah is he who is of benefit to his neighbor.” (Tirmidhi, Birr, 28)
“He is not a Muslim who sleeps on a full stomach while his neighbor is hungry.” (Hakim, II, 15/2166a)
Abu Dharr Ghifari (r.a) recounts:
“Whenever I was about to cook food, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) would tell me to add extra water and give some of it to my neighbor.” (Ibn Majah, Atimah, 58)
Considering Abu Dharr (r.a) was among the poorest of the Companions, it thus means that not even poorness is a valid excuse to evade donation.
Narrated by Abu Hurayra (r.a), one day the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) stated:
“By Allah he would not have believed, by Allah he would not have believed, by Allah he would not have believed…”
“Who would not have believed, Messenger of Allah?” asked the Companions present.
“He”, said the Prophet (pbuh) “whose neighbor does not feel safe from his harm.” (Bukhari, Adab, 29; Muslim, Iman, 73; Tirmidhi, Qiyamat, 60)
According to another account:
“One from whose harm his neighbor feels insecure shall not enter Paradise.” (Muslim, Iman, 73)
The Prophet of Allah’s (pbuh) Treatment of the Poor
Renowned for his benevolence for and caring intimacy with the poor, the lonely and the widowed (Bukhari, Nafaqat, 1; Muslim, Zuhd, 41-42) the Prophet of Grace (pbuh) would treat them with utmost care as if to compensate for their lack of financial welfare.
Abu Said (r.a)narrates:
“I was seated with a group of poor men from among the Muhajirun. Some of them, without adequate clothing to even cover their bodies, were ducking under the shadows of others for cover. Someone was reciting us some Quran. Meanwhile the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) appeared all of a sudden and waited awhile, standing. Upon his arrival, the person reciting the Quran stopped his recital. Then the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) greeted us and asked:
‘What are you doing?’
‘He is our teacher,’ we said. ‘He reads us the Quran and we lend ear to the Book of Allah.’
‘Thanks be to Allah who has created, among my ummah, those I have been command to bear patient with,’ then said the Prophet of Allah (pbuh).
Then with supreme modesty, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) sat amongst us. Signaling with his finger, he said:
‘Form a circle like this…’
All of us, thereupon, formed a circle around the Messenger (pbuh), facing him. That was when he gave us the following good news:
‘Glad tidings to you, the poor folk of Muhajirun…I give you the good news of a full light in the Hereafter. You will enter Paradise half a day before the rich…a half a day that equals the sum of five hundred years on Earth!’” (Abu Dawud, Ilm, 13/3666)
At one time a tribe arrived in Medina, without anything to wear on their feet, emaciated from hunger and the sweltering heat. Their moving sight touched the Prophet of Grace (pbuh)to his core; he suddenly grew pale. By getting Bilal (r.a) to recite the adhan, he gathered the Companions, and made them aware of the plight of the visitors. He was relieved somewhat after some among them, with means, volunteered to aid the troubled tribe. (Muslim, Zakat, 69-70; Ahmad, IV, 358, 361)
The Noble Prophet’s (pbuh) life thus abounds in fascinating instances of profound compassion.
“Aisha, do not refuse the poor, even if it be with half a date. Love the poor and seek nearness with them so that Allah will draw you near on the Day of Judgment”, the Noble Messenger (pbuh) would constantly advise his wife. (Tirmidhi, Zuhd, 37/2352)
Recounting the following is Abbad ibn Shurahbil (r.a):
“A while ago, I entered a field in Medina, having fallen poor and looking for something to eat. I pulled out some grains, ate some and filled some into my bag. Out of nowhere the owner of the garden appeared; grabbing hold of me, he beat me, seized possession of my bag and moreover took me to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to file a complaint.
‘You did not teach him when he was ignorant, neither did you feed him when he was hungry’, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) told the field owner, asking him to return me my bag.
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) then gave me enough supplies. (Abu Dawud, Jihad, 85/2620-2621; Nasai, Qudat, 21)
Islam demands an investigation first of the source of a crime, then a paramount effort to correct the criminal. From this perspective, penalties in Islamic Law are akin to the reprimand of children by their parents. The aim is not to banish the criminal, but to regain him back into society.
The Prophet of Allah’s (pbuh) Treatment of Captives and Servants
The mercy of the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) generously extended to prisoners of war, where he would order those around him to treat them with care. An evocative testimony is offered by Abu Aziz, brother of Musab ibn Umayr (r.a):
“I too had fallen prisoner in the aftermath of the Battle of Badr and was handed to a group of Ansar. The Prophet’s (pbuh) command to treat the prisoners well was made known to everyone but the pains taken by the Ansar was something out of the ordinary. Day and night, they would give their share of bread to me, making do themselves with mere dates. Embarrassed, I would hand the bread back to one of them, only to have it returned to me, without anyone of them laying a hand on it.” (Haythami, VI, 86; Ibn Hisham, II, 288)
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) aimed toward abolishing the long-lasting system of slavery and took great steps towards its realization. Encouraging, at every given opportunity, to set a slave free, he declared the act to be a great deed of worship. Freeing a slave became the foremost step toward redemption, whenever a Muslim committed a wrongdoing. With his encouragement, Abu Bakr (r.a), his closest friend, spent a great portion of his wealth in the way of freeing slaves.
The Prophet of Mercy (pbuh) on one occasion witnessed Abu Dharr (r.a) unknowingly maltreat his slave. Upset, he warned the Companion, remarking:
“It seems you are still following the customs of Ignorance”, before continuing:
“Do not harm what Allah has created. If the slave does not suit your temperament, then set him free. Do not burden him with more than he can handle; and if you do, then help him.” (Bukhari, Iman, 22; Muslim, Ayman, 38; Abu Dawud, Adab, 123-124)
A man had arranged a marriage between two of his slaves, only to have a change of heart, trying to separate them a while later. The male slave reported the affair to the Prophet (pbuh) who told the slave owner to:
“Keep out of it…you exercise no rights over their marriage and divorce.” (Ibn Majah, Talaq, 31; Tabarani, Kabir, XI, 300)
Faced with daunting responsibilities of the kinds mentioned, the Companions in time ended up preferring setting their slaves free over keeping them, which in due course culminated in the abolishment of the whole system as it now stands today; that is to say, it was again Islam that lifted the chains of slavery, a side effect of warfare and an enduring part of the history of mankind, from the neck of humanity.
Islam has always advised the slave owner to clothe and feed the slave from what he would see fit to clothe and feed himself, not to overload the slave with more than he can bare and to attend to all his needs. Freeing a slave has thus persistently been encouraged, for a Muslim, as a deed of virtue and an ultimate means of salvation. It has brought such rights for slaves that observing them has virtually rendered refraining from purchasing a slave preferable over owning one; such that owning a slave has practically come bear a similar meaning to becoming enslaved.
The words below of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), one of his last, deserve a good reflection:
“Be attentive to salat and salat especially…Fear Allah for those under your care.” (Abu Dawud, Adab, 123-124/5156; Ibn Majah, Wasaya, 1)
Thus the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) effectively closed the gates to slavery as far as circumstances permitted, and in turn fully opened its doors of exit, whereby aiding people under such yoke to attain their freedom has been encouraged at every given opportunity. Could there be a better method than that to end slavery?
The accounts below should suffice to get a clearer vision of the position to which Islam elevates a slave:
In spite of the well known fact of being slave before being guided to Islam, after becoming a Muslim Bilal Habashi (r.a) became, in time, the head muaddhin of the Noble Prophet (pbuh), making him, as it were, the patron saint of all muaddhins to come thereafter. The most vivid evidence for this is the Ya Hadrat Bilai Habashi panels, in most exquisite calligraphy, adorning the inner walls of mosques across Muslim lands.
Similarly, after being granted freedom by the Prophet of Mercy (pbuh), to whom he was presented as a gift by the honorable Khadijah (r.a), Zayd ibn Harithah (r.a), that gracious Companion, lived a life imbued with bounteous love for the Prophet, cherished as a supreme example for countless virtues. At a very tender age, his son Usamah (r.a) was personally appointed by the Noble Messenger (pbuh) as the commander-in-chief of the Muslim army.
One may also recall Tariq ibn Ziyad, the captor of Spain, previously an enchained slave bought and sold at will. Thanks to Islam, however, he was elevated to a rank worthy of the dignity and honor of man, ending up becoming the commander of the Muslim army.
Islam, in short, turned slaves into masters. Such was, after all, the main motive for the staunch idolater opposition of Islam in the first place. Now, do not contemporary doubters, the disbelievers of the 21st century carry the exact features? Do not the tyrants of today consign many free people to a life no different than slavery? Under the pretext of bringing liberty, are not the rights of countless innocent and helpless communities impounded for the sole reason of exploitation? Is there really that much difference, one wonders, between the oppressions of the past and the modern system of slavery atrociously implemented throughout the world as we speak, under the garb of a likable schema of terms and concepts?
Thus, in this day and age, Islam’s appreciation of human value, the force behind the gradual abolishment of slavery, by virtue of introducing ameliorating principles and responsibilities, ought to be recognized as the remedy of humanity. Otherwise it is set to perish in the bloody and brutal claws of exploitative notions that, under the promise of freedom, bring nothing but captivity. A far cry are the corrupt, leechlike principles that, when looking at the weak souls on earth, see nothing but flesh to be blood-sucked, to be shackled into slavery, from the sublimity of Islam that has used every given opportunity to put into place protecting measures to the advantage of both captives and servants, epitomized in the words of the Great Prophet (pbuh):
“They are your brothers and sisters…clothe and feed them in the same way you would yourselves.”
Like yesterday and so today, obeying the Prophet of Grace (pbuh) therefore stands as the sole cure for mankind; insofar as it was him who made sure that each human being, irrespective of whether rich or poor, strong or weak, lived worthy of the title, and brought unshakable measures in ensuring mankind received the honor it merits. Such that when some Companions asked the Prophet (pbuh) the amount of times they ought to forgive their servants, he recommended them to:
“Forgive them seventy times a day, every day.” (Abu Dawud, Adab, 123-124/5164; Tirmidhi, Birr, 31/1949)
The advice below of the Gracious Prophet (pbuh), an unfathomable ocean of mercy, exposes an inexpressible level considerateness for the other:
“When your servants bring food to your table, even if you are not going to have them sit with you, at least offer them some of the food…for it was them that endured the heat and struggle of cooking.” (Bukhari, Atimah, 55; Tirmidhi, Atimah, 44)
Had Allah, glory unto Him, willed, He could have turned things upon their heels, making the servant the master and the master the servant. It is our duty therefore to thank Allah and treat those in our care with in the best possible way.
The Prophet of Allah’s (pbuh) Treatment of Women
Women, in the Age of Ignorance, were exacted with an ignominious conduct, detrimental to female honor. From fear that they may fall into prostitution, people would ruthlessly bury their female children alive. Actuated by hearts of stone, they were committing a greater crime to prevent another, essentially caused by none other than ignorance. Their conditions are lucidly depicted by the Almighty in the Quran:
“And when a daughter is announced to one of them his face becomes black and he is full of wrath.” (an-Nahl, 58)
Seen solely as means for pleasure, women were treated humiliatingly. But with the command of the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) women’s rights were established, enabling women to become examples of integrity and virtue in society. Motherhood became an expression of honor.
The Prophetic praise articulated in the hadith, “Paradise lies under the feet of mothers”, symbolizes the value women have deservedly attained.
The Noble Prophet’s (pbuh) courtesy towards women is wonderfully illustrated in the incident below:
Once during a journey, a servant by the name of Anjasha began chanting to speed up the camels. Concerned that the accelerated camels might harm the delicate bodies of the women riding them, the Prophet of Grace (pbuh) remarked, allusively:
“Be cautious, Anjasha, so that you don’t shatter the glasses!” (Bukhari, Adab, 95; Ahmad, III, 117)
The Prophet (pbuh) has stated, in another hadith:
“Allah…I urgently avoid others from violating the rights of the two weak: orphans and women.” (Ibn Majah, Adab, 6)
“A Muslim ought not to hate his wife…for if she has a habit he dislikes, there will be another he likes.” (Muslim, Rada, 61)
Women are not bushes of thorn that deserve aversion, but rather rosaries that merit love and affection; and these are sentiments granted none other than by the Almighty. One can recall, in relation, the below words of the Prophet (pbuh):
“I have been made to like, from your world, women and fragrance…and salat has been rendered the spark of my eyes.” (Nasai, Ishratu’n-Nisa, 10; Ahmad, III, 128, 199)
That women, through whom human beings are delivered into the world, have been rendered lovable to the Prophet (pbuh) should not be assessed with from a perspective of ignorance. It should be borne in mind that this love, placed within the natural disposition of man by Allah, is a step of affection on a ladder that leads to a greater kind of love. What is of virtue, therefore, is not a contemptible kind of obsession towards women, much rather it is to give them the sublime value they deserve. In the history of humankind, it has only been within the blissful clime of Islam that women have attained such a divine worth. All other systems that allegedly cherish women cherish them only as fleshes for display, meanwhile economically exploiting them behind the scenes, manipulating them for their depraved ends.
The perspective toward women today, therefore, must be reassessed upon propitious and sublime base of Islam and thereby reinstalled in its proper zone. Woman and man are two profound worlds that have complemented one another since the beginning of their creation. But in this complementing process, Allah, glory unto Him, has bestowed a more influential role upon women; such that they can either make or break societies. Thus Islam has embraced, as a paramount ideal, the upbringing of women destined to be makers, as made actual by the words of the Noble Prophet (pbuh) below:
“Whoever takes under his wings his three daughters or sisters, beautifully rears and educates them, gets them married and continues his blessings and aids towards them, is destined for Paradise.” (Abu Dawud, Adab, 120-121/5147; Tirmidhi, Birr, 13/1912; Ahmad, III, 97)
The Noble Prophet (pbuh) has stated in another similar hadith:
“Whosoever sees the rearing and educating of his two daughters to their maturity, on the Day of Judgment he and I shall be by each other’s side like this”, joining his two fingers together in illustration. (Muslim, Birr, 149; Tirmidhi, Birr, 13/1914)
And in emphasis of the value of a pious woman, he said:
“Earth is but a fleeting benefit…and the most beneficial of its inhabitants is a righteous, pious woman.” (Muslim, Rada, 64; Nasai, Nikah, 15; Ibn Majah, Nikah, 5)
Standing strong behind great men, more often than not, are virtuous women. Amid the tough times of the first call, for instance, the Noble Messenger (pbuh) found his first and most resilient support in the honorable Khadijah, something the Prophet (pbuh) dearly appreciated till the end of his life. Evident also is the role of the great Fatimah in the successes of Ali (r.a).
A pious woman is thus the greatest and most valuable asset the earth can offer, wherefore the Prophet (pbuh) has placed emphasis on treating them with care as a prerequisite of becoming virtuous, in the following words:
“The most perfect Believer is he with the most excellent morals; and the most virtuous of you is he who treats women with the greatest integrity.” (Tirmidhi, Rada, 11/1162)
Yet what a slump of depravity it must be to still identify women only as a means for pleasure, to see them as possessions to relieve the desires of the flesh and to focus only on their physical characteristics. It betrays an ignorance of the matter, blindness to the magnificent features granted to women by the Almighty. The fact that women have been exposed in the consumer society today and exploited as a tool for advertisement is a major and destructive blow to the pride and integrity of women.
In fact women ought to be raised as the true architects of society, a heavenly lap rearing the intellects of tomorrow. There has not been created any other being worthy of the love and respect truly deserved by such genuine mothers, who have carried us for a while in their bellies, then in their arms and then till death in their hearts. A loyal mother to have sacrificed her own for her family warrants a profound love, a vast respect and a lifelong gratitude.
As for fragrance, the underlying wisdom for it being rendered lovable to the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) lies in the deepness and sensitivity it grants the soul. A beautiful scent is a sweet breeze of bliss also enjoyed by angels. It is moreover a mark of cleanliness, for a clean person naturally smells nice. The tender skin of the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) in fact always smelt as if it had been scented in the fragrance of roses; better still it was like roses had been created in the first place from the sweat trickling forth from his body. Whenever he caressed a child’s head, the head of the child would for a long while smell of musk.
With respect to salat, it was made the light of the Prophet’s (pbuh) eyes, since salat is a meeting with Allah, glory unto Him, a deed of worship performed like the Almighty is present before the person; and as such, it is the spark of the eye.
The Prophet of Allah’s (pbuh) Treatment of Orphans
That Allah, glory unto Him, sent His Beloved as an orphan to the world has granted orphanage an especial value. The Blessed Prophet (pbuh) would show enormous concern for the caring of orphans, the protection of whom is enjoined on numerous occasions throughout the Quran.
Commanding the espousal of sensitivity towards orphans, the Almighty states:
“…Therefore, treat not the orphan with harshness.” (ad-Duha, 9)
The related hadiths are of a similar tone:
“The house of greatest benefit for Muslims is that in which an orphan is treated with compassion…and the worst is that in which an orphan is treated with cruelty.” (Ibn Majah, Adab, 6)
“If a person takes an orphan, from among Muslims, home to feed and to clothe, then unless he commits an unforgivable sin, Allah, glory unto Him, will surely put him in Paradise.” (Tirmidhi, Birr, 14/1917)
“If a person caresses the head of an orphan simply for the sake of Allah, he will receive a reward for every strand of hair his hand touches…” (Ahmad, V, 250)
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) would persistently recommend the fulfilling of required social responsibilities in nursing the brokenhearted of society.
“Whoever treats well an orphan under his care, he and I shall be together in Paradise,” he would say, joining his fingers together to indicate the closeness of their awaiting company. (Bukhari, Adab, 24)
Once, to one complaining about the hardness of his heart, the Prophet of Mercy (pbuh) advised:
“Feed a poor, caress the head of an orphan, if you want to soften your heart.” (Ahmad, II, 263, 387)
The Prophet (pbuh), the peak of mercy and compassion, has again asserted:
“I am closer to Believers than they are to themselves. If a person bequeaths wealth following his death, then his inheritors shall lay claim to it. But if he leaves behind personal debt or orphans, then his debt is mine to close, and his orphans are mine to take care of.” (Muslim, Juma, 43. See also, Ibn Majah, Muqaddimah, 7)
The Prophet of Allah’s (pbuh) Treatment of Animals
Every behavior of the Prophet of Mercy (pbuh) was founded upon the pedestal of love and compassion, stemming from approaching all creatures with a feeling of love and a desire toward attending to their needs. Receiving a share of this vast ocean of compassion was also the animal kingdom. The Age of Ignorance was notorious, among many other reasons, for its unspeakable cruelty towards animals; they would severe bits of animals to eat while they were still alive and organize unrestrained fighting contests between animals. The Noble Prophet (pbuh) put an end to such atrocious practices.
The below account is by Abu Waqid (r.a):
“Medinans used to slice the lump of camels and likewise sever the legs of sheep to consume while the animals were still alive. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) intervened, declaring, ‘whatever is severed from an alive animal is carcass and therefore inedible.’” (Tirmidhi, Sayd, 12/1480)
The Prophet (pbuh) once, while walking, saw a donkey whose face had been branded. Disturbed, he remarked:
“May the wrath of Allah follow the responsible!” (Bukhari, Zhabaih, 25)
A group, that caused a bird distress by stealing one of her hatchlings from her nest, became the recipients of the admonishing of the Noble Prophet (pbuh):
“Whoever took the hatchling of the poor bird, return it to her at once!” he commanded. (Abu Dawud, Adab, 163-164/5268)
Accompanied by his Companions, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) had once set out from Medina to Mecca, in ihram. Near Usayah, he saw a fawn curled up, sleeping under a shade. The Blessed Prophet (pbuh) then commanded one of the Companions present to watch over the fawn and ensure nobody did anything to frighten the animal. (Muwatta, Hajj; Nasai, Hajj, 78)
Again, leading his magnificent army of ten-thousand strong to seize Mecca, the Prophet of Grace (pbuh) on the way stumbled upon a dog, sprawled out breastfeeding her puppies. He quickly called Juayl ibn Suraqa and commanded him to stand guard over the dogs, instructing the army to refrain from doing anything that may cause the mother and her pups distress. (Waqidi, II, 804)
Seeing a camel once, skeletal from being undernourished, the Prophet (pbuh) commented:
“Fear the Almighty with regard to these animals that cannot speak. Ride and feed on them as they are fit.” (Abu Dawud, Jihad, 44/2548)
Having once entered a garden belonging to an Ansari man, the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) there saw a camel, which seeing the Prophet (pbuh) began bellowing with tears trickling forth from its eyes. The Noble Messenger (pbuh) went next to the camel and gently began caressing behind its ears, only after which the camel calmed down.
“Who owns this camel?” the Prophet (pbuh) thereupon asked.
“It is mine”, said an approaching young Medinan man.
“Don’t you fear Allah with regard to the animal He has blessed you with?” asked the Prophet (pbuh). “It complains to me that you have left it in hunger and overworked it.” (Abu Dawud, Jihad, 44/2549)
On yet another occasion, while walking, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) encountered a group of people, chatting to each other while astride on their animal. He advised them to:
“…ride your animals with care, without tiring them and rest them appropriately while you are not using them. Do not use them as seats to accommodate the conversations you have on the streets. Many a ridden animal is better than its rider and remembers Allah, the Glorious, more than him.” (Ahmad, III, 439)
The Blessed Prophet (pbuh), during another time, came across a man slaughtering a sheep. The man, after having placed the sheep on the ground, began to sharpen his knife right before its eyes, an insensitive act incurring the warning of the Blessed Prophet (pbuh):
“Do you wish to kill the animal more than once? Couldn’t you have sharpened your knife before you had laid the sheep on the ground?” (Hakim, IV, 257, 260)
“Should I tell you about those who are distant from Hellfire and from whom Hellfire is equally distant?” he once asked to his Companions, before going on to give the answer:
“The courteous, tenderhearted, compassionate, friendly and affectionate…” (Ahmad, I, 415)
The Blessed Prophet (pbuh) explicates the contrast between the compassionate and the cruel in the subsequent depiction:
“A sinful woman once saw a dog, in a desert, licking the sand from thirst. Feeling sorry for it, she used her shoe to draw water from a nearby well and thereby quenched the dog’s thirst. So Allah forgave her sins. Another woman, careless, left her cat to starve; she prevented the cat from even helping itself to crawling bugs to allay its hunger. The cat finally died of starvation, and the woman’s cruelty earned her a place in Hell.”
Through these measures, the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) effectively turned a society of ignorance into a generation worthy of the Age of Bliss, Asr’us-Saadah. People, once grievously dreadful even in their treatment of each other, were now filled with a mercy that extended even to animals, for the very reason that the Prophet (pbuh), their exemplar beyond compare, was observing the rights of creatures as little as sparrows and immersing his Companions in an ineffable sensitivity.
Even with harmful animals like snakes and scorpions, needed at times to be killed for self defense, the Prophet (pbuh) sympathetically commands their killing, if need be, in the least hurtful manner:
“Whoever kills a snake in one go will receive a hundred rewards. Less for he who has two goes, and lesser for he who has more.” (Muslim, Salam 147; Abu Dawud, Adab 162-163/5263, Sayd, 14/1482)
How profound a compassion it must be where it is extends to even the killing of dangerous animals…
The Noble Prophet (pbuh) never boasted of possessing such a lofty standard of morals and servanthood. He would sometimes enumerate the blessings given to him by the Almighty, complementing it however with the assuring words, “La Fakhra – no boasting”, enshrouding himself in humbleness beyond description. (Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 1; Ibn Majah, Zuhd, 37; Ahmad, I, 5, 281)
Pride, or boasting, aims toward attracting praise and admiration, which fuel the arrogance of human beings. In spite of being the noblest of mankind and being of object of Divine accolades, the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) would always tell his Companions to call him:
“…the servant and the messenger of Allah” (Bukhari, Anbiya, 48; Ahmad, I, 23)
Human beings are endowed with the feeling of servanthood. One either serves his possessions and ends that are to his advantage, or his Lord. Servanthood to the Lord protects one from slavery to the self and possessions.
The perfect balance instituted by the Noble Messenger (pbuh) between the opposites of life exposes not the slightest deficiency or shortcoming. Discerning a second example of such character throughout history is impossible.
In particular walks of life, it is possible to perceive heroes with superior skills and qualities. But the Prophet (pbuh) stands strong as the sole example of the furthermost instances of all qualities combined in one person. Succinctly stated, he is most exceptional personality of all time, in all aspects thinkable, who left a legacy of unmatched beauties for the entire humankind, material and spiritual; unfathomable virtues in servanthood, social interactions and morals.
For no other reason, than that he was a guide of eternal bliss, deeply conscious of the heavy responsibility of being an exemplar for his ummah…
In close relation, the Blessed Prophet’s (pbuh) sensitivity towards salat was beyond everything else. Only a little time of night would he reserve for sleeping, while keeping his blessed body from the comfort of the bed for the better part of it. While everyone slept amid their sweet dreams, he would be shedding tears, prostrating to the Almighty. Even during his final days when his illness began taking its toll, the Noble Prophet (pbuh) observed congregational salat as much as his strength allowed him to step out of his room into the Masjid.
Abdullah ibn Shikhkir (r.a)depicts the Prophet’s (pbuh) focus during salat as follows:
“I once went next to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). He was performing salat, and from the intensity of his crying there were sounds similar to a boiling cauldron coming from his chest like.” (Abu Dawud, Salat, 156-157/904; Nasai, Sahv, 18)
Even though there was not any compulsory fasting for Muslims other than that of Ramadan, it was very rare for there to be a month in which the Gracious Prophet (pbuh) would not be seen fasting.
The honorable Aisha says:
“The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) would at times fast so continuously that we would think he was never going to stop.” (Bukhari, Sawm, 53)
He would never neglect fasting during the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth days of each month, six days during Shawwal and the ashura fasting on the tenth of Muharram. In addition, it was habitual for him to fast on Mondays and Thursdays.
Though he would enjoin the Believers, through the verse of zakah, with almsgiving and donating charity, the Noble Messenger (pbuh) would always provide the greatest amount of charities himself. He had set the highest standard of breathing life into the Divine praise:
“…who believe in the Unseen, are steadfast in prayer, and spend out of what We have provided for them” (al-Baqara, 3). He always praised possessions spared for charity, along with traders who upheld piety.
. The fundamentals upon which Islamic Sciences are predicated are the Quran and Sunnah, collectively referred to as nass. Comprising the Sunnah are the Noble Prophet’s consenting-disapproving words, actions and behavior. Matters clearly given verdict by the Quran and Sunnah allow no room for ijtihad.
. Ijtihad is the process undertaken by the mujtahid, the trained Scholar licensed to pass verdict, to settle a given issue within a specific methodology passed silent by the Quran and Sunnah, again loyal to the bounds of the Two Fundamentals,
. Ali Yardım, Peygamberimiz’in Şemâil, İstanbul, 1998, p. 49.
. Also see, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al-Musnad, Istanbul 1992, IV, 199.
. See, Ibn Sad, at-Tabaqâtu’l-Kubrâ, Beirut, Dâru Sâdır, I, 121, 365, 422-425; Haythamî, Majmau’z-Zawâid, Beirut 1988, IX, 13.
. See, Ibn Majah, At’imah, 30; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l-Awsat, II, 64.
. Yar-i Ghar means the Friend of the Cave, in reference to the companionship of the Light of Being with Abu Bakr in the Cave of Sawr en route to Medina. The term has also been used to describe sincere friendships.
. See, Ahmad, VI, 349; Haythamî, VI, 174; Ibn Sa’d, V, 451.
. Wâqidî, Magazi, Beirut 1989, II, 854-855.
. Also see, Abû Dawud, Harâj, 33-35/3055; Ibn Hibbân, Sahîh, Beirut, 1993, XIV, 262-264.
. Ahmad, az-Zuhd, p. 59.
. Ibn Kathîr, Tafsîru’l-Qur’âni’l-Azîm, Beirut 1988, I, 42.
. Ahmad, V, 235; Haythamî, Majmau’z-Zawâid, Beirut, 1988, IX, 22.
. See, Ahmad, II, 298; Tabarânî, al-Mu’jamu’l-Kabîr, prepared and published by Hamdi Abdülmajid as-Salafî, Beirut, Dâru Ihyâi’t-Turathi’l-Arabî, X, 162.
. Tirmidhî, Zuhd, 44/2377; Ibn Mâjah, Zuhd, 3; Ahmad, I, 301.
. Bayhakî, Shuabu’l-Imân, Beirut 1990, V, 225
. See, Muslim, Nudhur, 8; Abu Dâwûd, Aymân, 21/3316; Tirmidhî, Zuhd, 50; Ahmad, IV, 239.
. Haya does not fully translate into English. Though the term does invoke embarrassment or introversion it is not so in the truest sense. Haya, much rather, denotes an inner state withdrawal, from a fear of Allah, a state of mind, that results in restraining behavior or actions that would otherwise conflict with the spirit of Divine Command. (translator)
. Buhârî, Menâkıb 25, Eymân 3; Müslim, Salât, 119; İbn-i Hibbân,IV, 534.
. Bkz. Müslim, Fedâil, 79
. Ali al-Muttaqî al-Hindî, Kanzu’l-Ummâl, Beirut 1985, IV, 176/10044.
. İbn-i Abdilberr, el-İstîâb, Kâhire ts., I, 214-215; İbn-i Esîr, Üsdü’l-Gâbe, Kâhire 1970, I, 295.
. See, Ibn Sad, II, 197; Bukhari, Tıbb, 47, 49; Muslim, Salâm, 43; Nasâî, Tahrîm, 20; Ahmad, IV, 367, VI, 57; Aynî, XXI, 282.
. Suyûtî, al-Jâmiu’s-Saghîr, Egypt 1321, I, 146.
. It is an allusion to, “And withhold yourself with those who call on their Lord morning and evening desiring His goodwill, and let not your eyes pass from them, desiring the beauties of this world’s life; and do not follow him whose heart We have made unmindful to Our remembrance, and he follows his low desires and his case is one in which due bounds are exceeded.” (al-Kahf, 28), where Allah, glory unto Him, commands the Prophet (pbuh) with patience and perseverance, alongside the weak and the poor to have been the first to enter Islam, at the face of possible hardships that may befall them, and to treat them with utmost sensitivity.
. Muslim, Aymân, 36-38.
. Nasâî, Jihâd, 6; Ahmad, III, 429; Suyutî, I, 125.
. Camels are infatuated by a chant and a nice voice, hence the chanting of shepherds, called hida, to get their camels moving.
. Finding even a glimpse of an inclination of personal desire in any of the contracted marriages of the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) is impossible. Having never proposed to a girl even during in his youth, the Prophet (pbuh) accepted the proposal of the honorable Khadijah, a forty year old widow with children, with whom he spent the most vigorous years of his life. His marriages thereafter correspond to his more elderly years, post fifty-four to be precise; none of which were contracted, again, out of personal desire, but through Divine behest, and all of which were underlain with propitious reasons, first and foremost being the educating of Muslim women. Furthermore, the noble women fortunate to be wed to the Prophet (pbuh) were mostly helpless and elderly women with children from previous marriages. Thus the conspicuous fact that the polygamous phase of the Blessed Prophet (pbuh) coincides with his mature years and moreover at a time in which the duty of prophethood was at its most hectic, clearly proves that the marriages were Divinely orchestrated, actuated with the aim of conveying Islam to masses with greater ease. For more detailed information see, Osman Nûri Topbaş, Hazret-i Muhammed Mustafâ, I, 130-140.
. See, Bukhârî, Anbiyâ, 54; Muslim, Salâm, 151, 154; Birr, 133; Nasâî, Kusûf, 14.